One possible solution to the chal-
lenge of intervention [with parents]
against cultural norms is universal
provision. The United Kingdom’s
health visitor program—which,
among other things, sends nur-
ses and midwives into people’s
homes—is seen as a resource rather
than an intervention because it is
available to all through the Nation-
al Health Service. Nobody is stig-
matized by it, and, incidentally, its
universality protects it politically.
Of course, universal programs are
also more expensive, which is why
the economic efficiency and work-
force productivity aspects of Heck-
man’s case for early intervention are
so important. His suggestion that
services could be provided univer-
sally but charged on a sliding scale
by family income—an approach
known among Brits as “progressive
universalism”—is a realistic way
That is, they promote the State actively
re-educating citizens to conform to State
values—the values that Brighouse and
Swift hold dear. I doubt that they would
want the State indoctrinating parents
and other citizens into my worldview.
Brian D. Ray is president of the National
Home Education Research Institute (www
. nheri.org) and internationally known
for his research on homeschooling (home
education, home-based education). He is
a former professor at the undergraduate
and graduate levels and classroom teacher
in public and private schools, and serves
as an expert witness before many courts
and legislatures. He holds a B.S. in Biology from the University of Puget Sound,
an M.S. in Zoology from Ohio University,
and a Ph.D. in Science Education from
Oregon State University.
1. Harry Brighouse and Adam Swift’s “Family
Values” (2014, September 24). Retrieved January 5, 2016 from http://page99test.blogspot
2. Gelonesi, Joe. (2015). Is having a loving family an unfair advantage? Retrieved January 5,
2016 from http://www.abc.net.au/radionational
3. Lubienski, Christopher. (2000). Whither the common good?: A critique of home schooling.
Peabody Journal of Education, 75( 1 & 2), 207-232.
4. Apple, Michael W. (2006, December 21). The
complexities of black home schooling. From
www.TCRecord.org. Retrieved first paragraph 5/25/07 online http://www.tcrecord.org
/ Content.asp?ContentId=12903, and retrieved
6/22/07 online http://cockingasnook.wordpress
5.Kunzman, Robert. (2009). Understanding
homeschooling: A better approach to regulation.
Theory and Research in Education, 7( 3), 311-330.
6. Swift, Adam, & Brighouse, Harry. (2012, Sep-tember/October). Response: Progressive Universalism. Retrieved January 5, 2016 from http://
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